Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have revolutionised positioning, navigation, and timing, becoming a common part of our everyday life. Aside from these well-known civilian and commercial applications, GNSS is now an established atmospheric observing system, which can accurately sense water vapor, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60-70% of atmospheric warming. Severe weather forecasting is challenging, in part due to the high temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric water vapor. In this framework, the COST ES1206 , ”Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate (GNSS4SWEC)”, addresses new and improved capabilities from concurrent developments in both the GNSS and meteorological communities.
For the first time, the synergy of the three GNSS systems (GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) will be used to develop new, advanced tropospheric products, exploiting the full potential of multi-GNSS water vapor estimates on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from real-time monitoring and forecasting of severe weather, to climate research.
The analysis of the experimental GNSS observations and the set-up of propagation models offers the opportunity to better evaluate the impact of tropospheric phenomena on millimeters links to better define architecture and standardization topics of the incoming 5G system as well as for M2M/IoT applications.